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Red is the color most often seen in these beautiful gems, but the garnet also exists in various shades of green, a range of light to intense yellows, a fiery orange, and some earth-colored shades. The colors vary depending on whether they are being viewed under natural or artificial light. It is said that Noah used a garnet lantern to help him steer his ark through the dark night. Garnets are found in jewelry from early Egyptian, Greek, and Roman times. Many early explorers liked to carry a garnet as a talisman and protective stone. It was believed to light up the night and protect its bearer from evil and disaster. Today, science has taught us that the garnet's luminosity comes from its high refractive index.


Garnet's powers include healing, strength, and protection. It is often worn to relieve inflammations. It is also believed to regulate the heart and blood flow, as well as aid in curing depression. In earlier times, garnets were exchanged as gifts between friends to demonstrate their affection for each other and to ensure that they meet again.



Its color is as unique as it is seductive; in fact, this gemstone is said to protect its wearer against seduction. The amethyst is extravagance in violet. For many thousands of years, the most striking representative of the quartz family has been a jewel coveted by both ecclesiastical and secular princes. Moses described it as a symbol of the Spirit of God in the official robes of the High Priest of the Jews. The Russian Empress, Catherine the Great, sent thousands of miners into the Urals to search for these rare beauties.


Throughout history, amethyst has been used to guard against drunkenness and is thought to be helpful in overcoming addiction. It has been used for hearing disorders, insomnia, headaches and other pain. Some sources suggest it is used to stabilize mental disorders.

Worn to make the wearer gentle and amiable, amethyst powers are said to include bringing dreams of healing, peace, love, spiritual enlightenment, and courage. The stone also offers protection against thieves and unhappiness.



Its light blue color arouses feelings of sympathy, trust, harmony and friendship, feelings which are based on mutuality and which prove their worth in lasting relationships. The blue of aquamarine is a divine, eternal color because it is the color of the sky. However, aquamarine blue is also the color of water with its life-giving force.  Aquamarine really does seem to have captured the lucid blue of the oceans. According to legend, aquamarine originated in the treasure chest of fabulous mermaids and has, since ancient times, been regarded as the sailor’s lucky stone. Its name is derived from the Latin 'aqua' (water) and 'mare' (sea). It is said that its strengths are developed to the highest advantage when it is placed in water which is bathed in sunlight. However, it is surely better to wear aquamarine, since according to the old traditions, a gift of its sublime beauty promises a happy marriage and brings joy and wealth to the woman who wears it.


Since early times, aquamarine has been believed to endow the wearer with foresight, courage, and happiness. It is said to increase intelligence and make one youthful. As a healing stone, it is said to be effective as a treatment for anxiety and, in the Middle Ages, it was thought that aquamarine would reduce the effect of poisons.

A legend says that sailors wore aquamarine gemstones to keep them safe and prevent seasickness.



Diamond is a natural crystalline substance, the transparent form of pure carbon. A diamond is something superb, the peerless "King of all Gems".  It glitters, dazzles, and symbolizes purity and strength. The diamond is the classic gem for engagement and heralds the 75th wedding anniversary as a celebration of never-ending love. Diamond is indomitable, the hardest surface known. Diamond is exotic, formed in Earth's interior and shot to the surface by the extraordinary pressure of fiery volcanoes. A diamond is likely the oldest thing you will ever own, probably 3 billion years in age, fully two thirds the age of the Earth.  Diamonds have been valued across the span of history and stand for wealth, power, spirit, love, and magical powers.


Centuries ago, it was believed that diamonds protected an individual from harm and actually brought luck and success to the wearer, counteracting the effects of unfortunate astrological events and endowing the wearer with charm and the ability to attract others. The Greek philosopher, Plato, wrote about diamonds as living beings, embodying celestial spirits.



The name emerald comes from the Greek 'smaragdos' via the Old French 'esmeralde', and really just means “green gemstone”. The green of the emerald is the color of life and of springtime. It has also, for centuries, been the color of beauty and of constant love. In ancient Rome, green was the color of Venus, the goddess of beauty and love. Today, this color still occupies a special position in many cultures and religions. Green, for example, is the holy color of Islam. Many of the states of the Arab League have green in their flags as a symbol of the unity of their faith. Yet this color has a high status in the Catholic Church, too, where green is regarded as the most natural, and the most elemental, of the liturgical colors.


Folklore suggests that these stones will improve memory, intelligence, and intensify clairvoyance, helping to recall past events and predict future events. They are also worn to enhance love and contentment. Cleopatra prized emeralds above all other gems.



This rare gemstone is named after the Russian Tsar Alexander II (1818-1881), the very first crystals having been discovered in April 1834 in the Emerald mines near the Tokovaya River in the Urals. The most sensational feature of this stone is its surprising ability to change its color. Since it shows both red and green, the principal colors of old Imperial Russia, it inevitably became the national stone of Tsarist Russia. Green or bluish-green in daylight, alexandrite turns a soft shade of red, purplish-red, or raspberry red in incandescent light. This unique optical characteristic makes it one of the most valuable gemstones of all.  Alexandrite is very scarce due to its rare chemical composition.


Russians believe alexandrite is a good omen. It is said to open the heart to romantic possibilities, provide inner peace, and even ward off certain physical maladies. In critical situations, it is supposed to strengthen the wearer’s intuition, and help him or her find new ways forward in situations where logic will not provide an answer. Alexandrite is also reputed to aid creativity and inspire the imagination.



Red is the color of love. It radiates warmth and a strong sense of vitality. Red is also the color of the ruby, one of the most sought after and beautiful of all the gemstones. Historically, the ruby  has been considered one of the most valuable gemstones on Earth. It has everything a precious stone should have: magnificent color, excellent hardness and outstanding brilliance. In addition to that, it is an extremely rare gemstone, especially in its finer qualities. For a long time, India was regarded as the ruby's country of origin. In the major works of Indian literature, a rich store of knowledge about these gemstones has been handed down over a period of more than two thousand years. The term 'corundum', which we use today, is a rock-forming mineral. It is naturally transparent, but it can have different colors when impurities are present. The Sanskrit word for ruby is 'ratnaraj', which means “King of the Gemstones”.


It is believed that the person who possesses a good-quality ruby will live a life of peace and harmony. One would be protected against all danger and calamities and would be blessed with good health, as the ruby wards off all evils. Legend and folklore say that if someone made an offering of ruby gems to Lord Krishna (Hindu God of Indian Origin), one would be reborn as an emperor!

Genuine ruby gemstones are said to enhance one’s status and bestow name, fame, virtue, vigor, warmth, and commanding power to the wearer. They are also believed to eliminate depression in the wearer and make him bold and courageous.



The ancient Romans were fond of this gemstone and esteemed its radiant green shine, which does not change even in artificial light. It is sometimes called the “Emerald of the Evening”. Peridot is also found in Europe in medieval churches where it adorns many treasures. During the Baroque period, the rich green gemstone once again enjoyed a brief heyday. It can be found in Egyptian jewelry from the early 2nd millennium B.C. The stones used at that time came from a deposit on a small volcanic island in the Red Sea, some 45 miles off the Egyptian coast and was not rediscovered until about 1900. The peridot has enjoyed resurgence as a modern classic when, only a few years ago, rich peridot deposits were located in the Kashmir region. The vivid green of the peridot, which has a slight hint of gold, is the ideal gemstone color to go with that light summer wardrobe. No wonder, since the peridot is the gemstone of the summer month of August.


Peridot is thought to bring the wearer good luck, peace, and success. Its powers include bringing good health, offering protection, and enhancing sleep. The advantages of peridot are attracting love and calming anger while also soothing nerves and dispelling negative emotions.



This magnificent gemstone also comes in many colors besides the most familiar blue. We naturally associate this color with feelings of sympathy and harmony, friendship and loyalty. Thus, the blue of the sapphire has become a color which epitomizes constancy and fidelity. That is one of the reasons why women in many countries wish for a sapphire ring for their engagements.

There really are sapphires in yellow, pink, orange and purple.  Whatever the color, sapphires capture the imagination not only with hints of a transparent grayish-blue of a distant horizon but also in the gloriously colorful play of light in a sunset. Sapphires really are “gems of the sky”, although they are found in the ground.


The sapphire symbolizes loyalty, but at the same time, it gives expression to people's love and longing. Its powers include spiritual enlightenment and inner peace. Sapphire is believed to offer healing properties for rheumatism, colic, and mental illness. It is also considered an antidepressant and an aid to psycho kinesis, telepathy, clairvoyance, and astral projection.



The opal is often considered to be the most beautiful and desirable of all gems because it is highlighted with all the colors of the rainbow. It is said, in ancient Aboriginal history, that the creator came down to Earth on a rainbow, and that opals were created where his foot touched the ground.

The opal has more superstition attached to it than any other gemstone. It is true that the Opals may easily become brittle. If stored too dry or exposed to heat over a long period of time, they may show fissures while also losing color. Opals should be worn often so they can obtain humidity form the air as well as from the wearer’s skin.


According to legend, the wearer of an opal will be urbane and courteous and protected from the wrath of others. The stone was also reputed to make its owner invisible to foes and, thereby, exempt from misfortune. Opals were supposed to drive away despondency and evil thoughts, cure kidney diseases and cholera, soothe the eyes and nerves, and protect against lightning.  It was believed to make wishes come true and was particularly favorable to children, the theater, amusements, friendships and emotions. It is the gem of inspiration in the arts and in love. It was the lucky stone of the Romans who called it “cupid paederos”, which meant "child beautiful as love," and who revered it as the symbol of hope and purity.

The opal also promotes inner beauty,  heightens faithfulness, and strengthens eyesight, and helps recall past lives.



It is a fluorine aluminum silicate and comes in yellow, yellow-brown, honey-yellow, flax, brown, green, blue, light blue, red, pink, and, sometimes, it has no color at all. The topaz has been known for at least 2000 years and is one of the gemstones which form the foundations of the twelve gates to the Holy City of the New Jerusalem. It cannot be proved conclusively whether the name of the topaz comes from the Sanskrit or the Greek, though the Greek name 'topazos' means 'green gemstone'. The Romans dedicated the topaz to Jupiter.


These stones are said to serve as protection against enemies and as a symbol of beauty and splendor. The Greeks believed it had power to increase strength and to make its wearer invisible while the Romans believed it had power to improve eyesight. The Egyptians wore it as an amulet to protect them from injury.

It may protect the wearer from poisons and protect against sudden death. It can eliminate anger and sadness.



Zircon has long played a supporting role to more well-known gemstones, often stepping in as an understudy when they were unavailable. Zircon comes in a wide range of different colors, but, for many years, the most popular was the colorless variety, which looks more like a diamond than any other natural stone (because of its brilliance and dispersion). Today the most popular color is the blue zircon, considered an alternative birthstone for December. Most blue zircon is of a pastel blue, but some exceptional gems have a bright blue color. Zircon is also available in green, dark red, yellow, brown, and orange.

Zircons can be chipped if not handled and stored with care. Because of its rarity and variety of colors, it is a popular collector’s stone.


In the middle ages, zircon was said to aid sleep, bring prosperity, and promote honor and wisdom in its owner. The healing powers of gems remain a controversial issue, but are mentioned for centuries by healers, shamans, and medicine men.